Asphalt ( Construction ) has been the subject of exhaustive study to improve characteristics for use in paving. Various properties of asphalt are manipulated to produce a product that has the appropriate wear properties, rut resistance, fatigue and low temperature cracking resistance, adhesion strength, viscosity and pour point. Rut resistance is resistance to longitudinal surface depressions in the wheel paths.

Adhesion strength is the maximum adhesion strength of the joint sealant and the joint reservoir, including but not limited to, between the aggregate and the binder.

Shove resistance is resistance to permanent, longitudinal displacement of a localized area of the pavement surface caused by traffic pushing against the pavement. Heavy hydrocarbon that can be derived from, without limitation, natural asphalt (Gilsonite), shale asphalt, bottoms from a solvent deasphalting process, hard asphalt, blown asphalt, stiff refined asphalt, a flux. Asphalt is usually the base ingredient for the primer and the binder.

A primer can be asphalt, fibers (including but not limited to, mineral or cellulose), processing agent (including but not limited to, oligiomeric wax, carboxilated, derivative of oligiomeric wax, or low molecular weight polyolefin), polymeric or elastomeric additive, or asphalt-derived.

A primer melts to the aggregate. Asphalt binders without polymers are referred to as “neat”.